John asks – what “is” non-maximizing behaviour? Doug answers , “pure” altruism. But what do we understand by the idea of altruism? When A does good for B and does not further his/her own objective? For example, A loves her children and (tries) to do good for them. Fair enough, but A herself furthers her own objectives or preferences doing those loving acts. Going back to the discussion on greed and maximisation..that motivation does not mean your objectives aren’t to do good for others. Maximisers help others, well some maximisers, an some others. An intriguing idea here is that maximisation itself is unobservable, it is an assumption, a way of guiding thinking, but not itself directly testable, observable. Ditto for altruism, well pure altruism, the kind where A does good for others without any net benefit to herself. John brings in a question about opportunism and maximisation – where does that fit into the economists way of thinking?